Session Type: ACR Poster Session B
Session Time: 9:00AM-11:00AM
Background/Purpose: Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin and striated muscle. A subset of patients can present with rash only, labeled as skin predominant JDM (spJDM) for this study. The natural course of patients with spJDM and optimal treatment is unknown. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical course of spJDM patients and assess for early indicators that may predict progression to classic JDM.
Methods: A chart review to identify patients presenting with spJDM was performed on all patients with the diagnosis code for dermatomyositis seen at 3 sites (Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin, Boston Children’s Hospital, IWK Health Centre). Data collected included patient demographics, presenting symptoms and exam findings, initial treatment, muscle enzymes, muscle biopsy, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients were categorized as either amyopathic (no weakness on exam and no diagnostic studies consistent with myositis) or hypomyopathic (no weakness but diagnostic studies showed subclinical myositis). Follow up visits were reviewed for development of weakness.
Results: Twenty-four patients presented with spJDM: 8 (33%) were amyopathic on initial evaluation, while 16 (67%) were hypomyopathic. None of the amyopathic patients later developed weakness (follow up 3-144 months, median 31 months). Six (38%) hypomyopathic patients later evolved into classic JDM with weakness (follow up 10-85 months, median 45 months). Time to development of weakness ranged from 3 to 24 months after onset of rash. Patients who developed weakness had varying degrees of subclinical myositis as evidenced by lab or MRI. MRI was abnormal in 7 of 20 patients (35%) at baseline. Only 2 of these 7 patients (29%) later developed weakness. Patients with an abnormal MRI were more likely to receive systemic corticosteroids and/or methotrexate as part of initial therapy (43% vs 8%). The combination of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) with a topical calcineurin inhibitor was the most common first line agent (21%). However, whether alone or in combination with a topical agent, HCQ was initiated in 46% of patients. Nine percent of patients treated with HCQ with or without topical agents developed weakness, while 50% treated with topical agents alone and 40% treated with systemic steroids developed weakness. Methotrexate was always started in conjunction with systemic steroids (4/24). Two patients with no initial treatment were later treated with HCQ or topical steroid for persistent skin disease and never had weakness.
Conclusion: Our work suggests that topical therapies do not prevent the development of weakness, but systemic treatment with HCQ may diminish the development of weakness in spJDM (50% vs 9%). No amyopathic patient progressed to develop weakness, while 38% of hypomyopathic patients developed weakness. This suggests the importance of comprehensive baseline testing using clinical, lab and MRI assessments, and that hypomyopathic patients should be followed more closely to assess for disease progression over time. Larger trials are needed to identify long term outcomes, optimal treatment, and whether treatment of spJDM prevents weakness.
To cite this abstract in AMA style:Oberle EJ, Co DO, Chiu Y, Bayer M, Huber A, Ezgi Baris H, Kim S. Clinical Course of Juvenile Dermatomyositis Presenting As Skin Predominant Disease [abstract]. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016; 68 (suppl 10). https://acrabstracts.org/abstract/clinical-course-of-juvenile-dermatomyositis-presenting-as-skin-predominant-disease/. Accessed June 6, 2020.
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ACR Meeting Abstracts - https://acrabstracts.org/abstract/clinical-course-of-juvenile-dermatomyositis-presenting-as-skin-predominant-disease/