Date: Sunday, October 21, 2018
Session Title: 3S079 ACR Abstract: Antiphospholipid Syndrome (851–856)
Session Type: ACR Concurrent Abstract Session
Session Time: 2:30PM-4:00PM
Background/Purpose: While the role of antiphospholipid antibodies in activating endothelial cells has been extensively studied, the impact of these antibodies on the adhesive potential of leukocytes has received considerably less attention. Mac-1 is a heterodimeric beta-2 integrin primarily expressed by myeloid-lineage cells. In its activated state, Mac-1 mediates cell-cell interactions by engaging a variety of surface molecules, including the endothelium-expressed glycoprotein ICAM-1. Here, our goals were (1) to determine the extent to which APS neutrophils adhere to healthy, resting endothelial cells under physiologic flow conditions, and (2) to identify potential therapeutic targets by elucidating the molecules required for that adhesion.
Methods: Primary APS patients (meeting Sydney criteria) and non-autoimmune controls were matched for age and gender. Freshly isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were utilized within five passages. Samples were introduced into a flow channel via a programmable syringe pump, and perfused across a resting HUVEC monolayer. After 15 minutes of perfusion, the chamber was flushed, and the remaining adherent cells were quantified. Flow cytometry was used to identify differentially-expressed molecules on the surface of APS neutrophils. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release was assessed in static neutrophil-HUVEC cultures.
Results: Pre-treating control neutrophils with APS plasma resulted in increased adhesion as compared with control plasma (>2.5-fold for n=12 plasma samples; p<0.05). This was true under both venous conditions (low shear) and conditions representative of the microvasculature (pulsatile flow and higher shear). Control neutrophils treated with APS plasma demonstrated upregulation of CD64, CEACAM-1, beta-2 glycoprotein I, and activated Mac-1 on the neutrophil surface, as well as shedding of L-selectin. Upregulation of activated Mac-1 and shedding of L-selectin were also triggered by IgG purified from APS plasma. For these changes to be meaningful clinically, we reasoned that they should be present on neutrophils in the peripheral blood of APS patients. Indeed, perfusion of anticoagulated blood through the flow chamber resulted in increased adhesion of patient neutrophils as compared with controls (>5-fold for n=18 patients; p<0.05). Similarly, patient neutrophils demonstrated upregulation of CD64, CEACAM-1, beta-2 glycoprotein I, and activated Mac-1 on the neutrophil surface. A monoclonal antibody specific for activated Mac-1 reduced the adhesion of APS neutrophils to HUVECs in the flow-chamber assay (>2-fold reduction for n=5 patients; p<0.05). Importantly, the same monoclonal antibody reduced NET release in neutrophil-HUVEC co-cultures.
Conclusion: APS neutrophils have an increased adhesive potential, which is dependent upon the activated form of Mac-1. This may lower the threshold for both neutrophil-endothelium engagement and NET release in patients, and thereby have implications for events such as venous thrombosis. Studies are underway to determine the extent to which Mac-1 is a viable therapeutic target in preclinical models of APS.
To cite this abstract in AMA style:Sule G, Kelley WJ, Yalavarthi S, Banka A, Vreede A, Eniola-Adefeso O, Knight JS. Integrin Mac-1 Potentiates Neutrophil Adhesion and NET Release in Antiphospholipid Syndrome [abstract]. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018; 70 (suppl 10). https://acrabstracts.org/abstract/integrin-mac-1-potentiates-neutrophil-adhesion-and-net-release-in-antiphospholipid-syndrome/. Accessed January 18, 2022.
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